duminică, 28 aprilie 2013

STUDY OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY



HISTORY


            Annotated leather tanning workshops and brewing in ancient Egypt, about the use of mineral products, vegetable and animal since five thousand years ago recorded the first Chinese pharmacopoeia, and about the use of purple by the Phoenicians extracted from marine mollusks to dye cloth and fabrics, are landmarks in the evolution of the human species and some of the first information regarding concerns about organic chemistry.
      The end of the century - XVIII - century appeared the first classifications of substances from vegetable and animal were organic substances (by analogy with the fact that they are produced by living organisms) and the mineral were called inorganic minerals (no life).
     Organic chemistry the term was introduced in 1808 by J.J. Berzelius you associate with all substances that are produced by living organisms and have in turn a vital force. force theory would be disproved in 1828 by F. Wöhler, who won for the first time in the laboratory by synthesis, an organic compound, urea. F. Wöhler noted that by the action of ammonium chloride, NH4  NCO and 

Silver chloride, AgCl :

  AgNCO + NH4  NCO  →NH4NCO +  AgCl ;

                  t0 C                 
      NH4NCO +  → ( NH2CO ; → urea


      Analysis of the residue formed by turning white hot ammonium cyanate showed that the substance obtained in the laboratory is urea, organic compound existing in urine studied extensively at that time.
     Organic chemistry is the chemistry of hydrocarbons (compounds made ​​of only carbon and hydrogen) and their derivatives.
    Emergence and development of organic chemistry in Romania is related to the work of Petru Poni (1841 - 1918) and L. Edeleanu about chemistry aromatics Nenitescu D. Costin's (1902 - 1970), founder of the Romanian school of organic chemistry that has made ​​contributions outstanding in the field of hydrocarbons, of heterocyclic compounds, of natural compounds, and the elucidation of reaction mechanisms.

      OBJECT OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

  Covers organic chemistry: the synthesis of organic compounds, determining their structure, studying the physical and chemical property their, elucidating the mechanisms which produce chemical mechanisms which they participate (organic compounds).
                          

          Organogenic elements

     Organic compounds may be in their molecule only carbon and hydrogen atoms, which are the main components, but the oxygen atoms (O), nitrogen (N), halogen-[fluoro (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br) , iodine (I)], sulfur (S), phosphorus (P) and in some cases the metal atoms and ions.
       These elements are found in organic compounds are called organogenic elements, ie forming organic compounds.