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Calcium (Ca)

Calcium is known since 1808 when Sir Davy Humpherey with the famous Swedish chemist JJ Berzelius is obtained by electrolysis of calcium chloride using a mercury cathode. Separation of metallic calcium calcium amalganul result of electrolysis was achieved by vacuum distillation.It is a very common metal in the earth's crust (3. 6% digreutate), but only in the form of chemical combinations, calcium carbonate CaCO3 is the most common natural chemical combination of calcium is a component of the rocks mainly sedimenatre. This alotro-pice twofold: calcite, aragonite. The most common is calcite. There may be men-tioned calcium and other chemical combinations in nature, such as: sulfa-tion of calcium (gypsum) → CaSO4 2H2O, calcium fluoride CaF2 fluorite, dolomite (CaCO3 MgCO3), apatite CA5 (PO4) 3F, aragonite, chalk. Noteworthy is also the presence of calcium in the human body (1. 4% by weight) and in animals is concentrated in bones.
Of natural chemical cumpusii calcium, limestone, marble and gypsum materials represent known and successfully used since antiquity but because their quality is still used today.Is silver-white and quickly losing luster metallic outdoors due to the formation of a surface oxide layer. Depending on the temperature has three allotropic forms: α, β and γ. Calcium α is stable up to 250 ° C temperature and crystallizes in the cubic system with centered faces, β-type calcium crystallizes in the hexagonal system are stable compact 250-450 ° C, and calcium γ is the stability between 450-845oC and crystallized in system centered cubic volume. Calcium is a soft metal and a little mechanical strength. Rub down between 250 and 400oC and can be rolled into sheets.
Calcium is a typical metal with inert gas configuration. Is a strong electropositive metal. Due to poor retention of valence electrons, reactivity calcium is high. For this reason is not found in free state in nature. Exposed to air oxidizes easily and is therefore kept under oil.
Of chemically reactive calcium is a metal combines directly reacting vigorously in some cases even cold, with hydrogens (in particular fluorine and chlorine), oxygen and sulfur. With hydrogen to several hundred degrees formed hydride ion. It combines directly with nitrogen resulting nitrides, and carbon, giving carbides. Calcium combustion temperature is over 600 ° C and the resulting dry firing is peroxide. Calcium dislocueste acidic hydrogen not only water but also in giving hydroxides. Calcium hydroxides are strong bases, but weaker than alkali metal hydroxides. Most important compounds of calcium are: → CaCl2 6H2O, Ca F2, CaO (sparingly soluble), Ca (OH) 2, CaCO3 (poorly soluble) → CaSO4 2H2O (gypsum).Because of its chemical autoignition calcium tends to be outdoors, which is why, as a metal, is used quite a bit. In some alloys metallurgy bearings with lead-based additives containing calcium and sodium. With chemical activity is used to remove traces of gases such as hydrogen, in order to achieve a vacuum. As magnesium is a good reduction and as such is used in extraction processes chromium, zinc and uranium.Limestone ore load is introduced into the furnace with basic fondant role (Matt. used to form slag). It is used to obtain calcium oxide, calcium oxide, which is inserted into the furnace steels training is necessary for the formation of slag. In addition lime has many uses in the manufacture of glass, sugar, tanners etc. It is also used to obtain soda to ensure CO2 and CaO (Solvay process).

THE MOST IMPORTANT MINERAL BODYMinerals are essential components of the body involved both in strengthening its structures, and in fulfillment of physiological activities. Some of them are found in the body in large amounts and some in very small quantities.Calcium is the mineral present in the highest amount in the body (one kilogram - one kilogram and a half).
FUNCTIONS calcium in the body- The main function of calcium in the body is that along with phosphorus to strengthen and maintain in good condition the skeleton and teeth. This is done in optimal conditions when the ratio of the amount of calcium and phosphorus is 2 to 1. Also calcium can not be absorbed in the presence of sufficient amounts of vitamin D.- Calcium has an important role in the transmission of nerve impulses, being nervous system tonic and strengthening its functional balance. Thus muscle contraction is dependent on the presence of calcium, as coupled phenomena of nerve impulses are the actual muscle contraction by calcium ions only.- Together with magnesium is responsible for cardiovascular health. Ensure regular heart beat.- Contribute to iron metabolism.- Prevents rapid passage of fluid into the extracellular space plasma having beneficial effect in inflammatory processes.- By stabilizing cell membranes reduces calcium scale allergic processes. That is why in case of allergic reactions (rhinitis, urticaria, asthma, etc.) are recommended adequate doses of calcium.- Stimulates the body's enzymatic equipment.- Helps in the treatment of insomnia.
     Calcium deficiency is one of the frequencies disorders of mineral imbalance in the body.It may occur due to a diet with enough calcium, vitamin D due to reduced intake due to illness (liver, kidney, pancreas, etc.) or due to a decrease parathyroid function, which maintains calcium gland in physiological concentrations.Calcium deficiency is manifested differently, depending on the severity decreasing ionic fraction.                Manifestations of hypocalcaemia are :

- State of insomnia, irritability, palpitations, abdominal cramps (sometimes violent) unnecessary bloating, difficulty swallowing, sensation of numbness of the hands, sweating bouts of unexplained depression, intense headache, spontaneous muscle contractions at different muscle groups (arms, legs, trunk, face), tingling in the limbs, sensation of breathlessness unmotivated, melancholic moods, disturbances of the menstrual cycle (period loss thinning bleeding) disorder, sexual dynamics, impaired concentration. Of course not all of these events take place but only some photons themselves, but it is advisable to know them.Tetany occurs in severe forms (contractions that comprise most of the muscles of the body, including respiratory, platforms such as life-threatening). Calcium deficiencies lead to malformed bones causing osteoporosis rickets in children or adults.Osteoporosis, the so-called "fragile bone disease" is characterized by decreasing bone substance for bone marrow spaces. Bone density is gradually decomposed without more formal back. In this way becomes more fragile bone structure, increasing the risk of fractures. Fracture can occur even when bone is subjected to minimal force.And osteoporosis primarily involves preventing it and it begins in childhood and continues throughout life.Factors determining calcium in the body imbalance
First food:
- Processing result in depreciation extensive food vitamins and minerals.- Excess protein cause increased phosphorus content may lead to an increased elimination of calcium in the body. So the excess meat and even milk not only helps but causes the body to lose more calcium than they earn.- Excess of bread, cakes and other flour prevents calcium absorption.- Excess salt in foods allows potassium loss in the urine, thus affecting the proper use of food protein and calcium leading to elimination.- Alcohol, coffee, sugar and diuretics cause loss of potassium in the body which causes a stronger elimination of calcium in the urine.- Soft drinks, drinks are high in phosphorus and thus consume calcium from the body. Must therefore be cautious in this regard.Another important factor unbalanced calcium in the body is the abuse of drugs (diuretics, birth control pills, prolonged treatment with cortisone and prednisone, etc).In addition, reduced exposure to sunlight cause an insufficient amount of vitamin D, which reduces calcium absorption.Stress and lack of movement creates dysfunction in the body dysfunction leading to disruption of calcium uptake.Menopause and especially premature menopause, diabetes, hyperthyroidism, chronic kidney and liver diseases, blood diseases (anemia, leukemia), rheumatoid arthritis cause disruption of calcium in the body.
Natural Remedies for a sufficient intake of calcium in the bodyCalcium in the body is not always necessary and it depends same age and sex.Calcium intake is of particular importance to women during pregnancy and lactation.Also sufficient calcium intake must be especially during childhood and adolescence, growth period of the skeleton.It remains important even during the third age after 40 years because there is a natural bone loss that continues slowly throughout life.
In conclusion, calcium intake is important throughout life and that is why diet must be balanced with a sufficient intake of vitamins and minerals without excess protein, rich in fresh fruits and vegetables.Natural sources of calcium: milk and dairy products, egg yolks, sardines, salmon, soy and dry beans, peas, cauliflower, broccoli, carrots, celery, cabbage, turnips, nuts, sunflower seeds, apples, pears, grapes, blackberries, blueberries.Belts grapes or pears are particularly beneficial for preventing osteoporosis (grapes and pears contain boron, a mineral that contributes to a better absorption of calcium).Detention after 40 years (if you have diabetes) is recommended to consume honey and pollen products that contain the necessary supporting bone.I notice another very effective natural product in phospho-calcium imbalances, namely propolis. It can be used both hypocalcaemia and in osteoporosis.Plants on mineral intake Revealed: horsetail, nettle, sea buckthorn, rosehip, knotweed, folders medicinal bean or couch grass.Tea is consumed in the form of maceration or infusion.Can be consumed natural calcium tablets, but age-appropriate amounts.
Calcium is strongly recommended in the following situations:
- Spasmophilia acute or chronic treatment of rickets, osteomalacia and osteoporosis, calcium restore normal amount of women during pregnancy and lactation, allergic reactions, nervous system functional disorders (lack of concentration, fatigue, headaches, irritability, nervousness), menopausal disorders, menstrual disorders (prolonged bleeding or bleeding loss thinning period), irregular heartbeat.Bone pain (especially back), insomnia, weakness or tremors teeth can be removed by an increased intake of calcium.
The above examples show just some of the many uses of chemical compounds of calcium.

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Simbol chimic : N
Masa atomica : 14
Numar de masa “Z”: 7
Azotul se gaseste in grupa a V-a principala ai in prima perioada in sistemul periodic.
Azotul este un caz incolor, inodor, insipid si non-toxic. El poate fi condensat intr-un lichid incolor si apoi compresat intr-un solid incolor si cristalin.
Nitrogenul are denistatea cu putin mai mica decat a aerului si este mai putin solubil in apa decat oxigenul. El nu intretine viata fiintelor care il respira.
Temperatura de topire a azotului este de – 210, 01 °C , in timp ce cea de fierbere este de – 195, 79 °C.
STARE NATURALA: Azotul este unul dintre gazele extrem de raspandite in natura. El se gaseste atat in stare libera cat si sub forma de compusi:
In stare libera, azotul reprezinta 78% din volumul aerului atmosferic.
Compusii azotului sunt:
-anorganici ( amoniac, azotati, etc. )
-organici (uree, proteine )
Azotul de gaseste intr-o proportie de la 1 la 10 % in fiecare din organismele vii.



Proprietăţi fizice

În funcţie de masa lor molară, alcanii sunt gazoşi, lichizi sau solizi.
Datorită diferenţei mici de electronegativitate dintre atomii de carbon şi hidrogen, alcanii conţin numai legături covalente nepolare. De aceea între moleculele alcanilor se exercită forţe de atracţie van der Waals.
Cu cât molecula este mai mare cu atât energia necesară pentru ruperea forţelor intermoleculare trebuie să fie mai mare, iar punctele de fierbere corespunzătoare vor creşte.

ALCANI C1-C4 C5- C17 C18, C19,…. Stare de agregare ( 25º C) GAZE LICHIDE SOLIDE Puncte de fierbere Cresc cu creşterea masei molare Densităţi ( ρalcani < 1 Cresc cu creşterea masei molare

Dintre izomerii de catenă ai unui alcan, cel cu catenă normală are punctul de fierbere cel mai ridicat, iar izoalcanul cel mai ramificat are punctul de fierbere cel mai scăzut.


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· În 1999, numarul tarilor care raporteaza utilizarea drogurilor prin injectare a fost de 136, numarul fiind de 80 în 1992. Dintre acestea, 93 de tari de asemenea identifica HIV printre injectatorii de droguri.
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