Calcium is known since 1808 when Sir Davy Humpherey with the famous Swedish chemist JJ Berzelius is obtained by electrolysis of calcium chloride using a mercury cathode. Separation of metallic calcium calcium amalganul result of electrolysis was achieved by vacuum distillation.It is a very common metal in the earth's crust (3. 6% digreutate), but only in the form of chemical combinations, calcium carbonate CaCO3 is the most common natural chemical combination of calcium is a component of the rocks mainly sedimenatre. This alotro-pice twofold: calcite, aragonite. The most common is calcite. There may be men-tioned calcium and other chemical combinations in nature, such as: sulfa-tion of calcium (gypsum) → CaSO4 2H2O, calcium fluoride CaF2 fluorite, dolomite (CaCO3 MgCO3), apatite CA5 (PO4) 3F, aragonite, chalk. Noteworthy is also the presence of calcium in the human body (1. 4% by weight) and in animals is concentrated in bones.
Of natural chemical cumpusii calcium, limestone, marble and gypsum materials represent known and successfully used since antiquity but because their quality is still used today.Is silver-white and quickly losing luster metallic outdoors due to the formation of a surface oxide layer. Depending on the temperature has three allotropic forms: α, β and γ. Calcium α is stable up to 250 ° C temperature and crystallizes in the cubic system with centered faces, β-type calcium crystallizes in the hexagonal system are stable compact 250-450 ° C, and calcium γ is the stability between 450-845oC and crystallized in system centered cubic volume. Calcium is a soft metal and a little mechanical strength. Rub down between 250 and 400oC and can be rolled into sheets.
Calcium is a typical metal with inert gas configuration. Is a strong electropositive metal. Due to poor retention of valence electrons, reactivity calcium is high. For this reason is not found in free state in nature. Exposed to air oxidizes easily and is therefore kept under oil.
Of chemically reactive calcium is a metal combines directly reacting vigorously in some cases even cold, with hydrogens (in particular fluorine and chlorine), oxygen and sulfur. With hydrogen to several hundred degrees formed hydride ion. It combines directly with nitrogen resulting nitrides, and carbon, giving carbides. Calcium combustion temperature is over 600 ° C and the resulting dry firing is peroxide. Calcium dislocueste acidic hydrogen not only water but also in giving hydroxides. Calcium hydroxides are strong bases, but weaker than alkali metal hydroxides. Most important compounds of calcium are: → CaCl2 6H2O, Ca F2, CaO (sparingly soluble), Ca (OH) 2, CaCO3 (poorly soluble) → CaSO4 2H2O (gypsum).Because of its chemical autoignition calcium tends to be outdoors, which is why, as a metal, is used quite a bit. In some alloys metallurgy bearings with lead-based additives containing calcium and sodium. With chemical activity is used to remove traces of gases such as hydrogen, in order to achieve a vacuum. As magnesium is a good reduction and as such is used in extraction processes chromium, zinc and uranium.Limestone ore load is introduced into the furnace with basic fondant role (Matt. used to form slag). It is used to obtain calcium oxide, calcium oxide, which is inserted into the furnace steels training is necessary for the formation of slag. In addition lime has many uses in the manufacture of glass, sugar, tanners etc. It is also used to obtain soda to ensure CO2 and CaO (Solvay process).
THE MOST IMPORTANT MINERAL BODYMinerals are essential components of the body involved both in strengthening its structures, and in fulfillment of physiological activities. Some of them are found in the body in large amounts and some in very small quantities.Calcium is the mineral present in the highest amount in the body (one kilogram - one kilogram and a half).
FUNCTIONS calcium in the body- The main function of calcium in the body is that along with phosphorus to strengthen and maintain in good condition the skeleton and teeth. This is done in optimal conditions when the ratio of the amount of calcium and phosphorus is 2 to 1. Also calcium can not be absorbed in the presence of sufficient amounts of vitamin D.- Calcium has an important role in the transmission of nerve impulses, being nervous system tonic and strengthening its functional balance. Thus muscle contraction is dependent on the presence of calcium, as coupled phenomena of nerve impulses are the actual muscle contraction by calcium ions only.- Together with magnesium is responsible for cardiovascular health. Ensure regular heart beat.- Contribute to iron metabolism.- Prevents rapid passage of fluid into the extracellular space plasma having beneficial effect in inflammatory processes.- By stabilizing cell membranes reduces calcium scale allergic processes. That is why in case of allergic reactions (rhinitis, urticaria, asthma, etc.) are recommended adequate doses of calcium.- Stimulates the body's enzymatic equipment.- Helps in the treatment of insomnia.
Calcium deficiency is one of the frequencies disorders of mineral imbalance in the body.It may occur due to a diet with enough calcium, vitamin D due to reduced intake due to illness (liver, kidney, pancreas, etc.) or due to a decrease parathyroid function, which maintains calcium gland in physiological concentrations.Calcium deficiency is manifested differently, depending on the severity decreasing ionic fraction. Manifestations of hypocalcaemia are :
Natural Remedies for a sufficient intake of calcium in the bodyCalcium in the body is not always necessary and it depends same age and sex.Calcium intake is of particular importance to women during pregnancy and lactation.Also sufficient calcium intake must be especially during childhood and adolescence, growth period of the skeleton.It remains important even during the third age after 40 years because there is a natural bone loss that continues slowly throughout life.In conclusion, calcium intake is important throughout life and that is why diet must be balanced with a sufficient intake of vitamins and minerals without excess protein, rich in fresh fruits and vegetables.Natural sources of calcium: milk and dairy products, egg yolks, sardines, salmon, soy and dry beans, peas, cauliflower, broccoli, carrots, celery, cabbage, turnips, nuts, sunflower seeds, apples, pears, grapes, blackberries, blueberries.Belts grapes or pears are particularly beneficial for preventing osteoporosis (grapes and pears contain boron, a mineral that contributes to a better absorption of calcium).Detention after 40 years (if you have diabetes) is recommended to consume honey and pollen products that contain the necessary supporting bone.I notice another very effective natural product in phospho-calcium imbalances, namely propolis. It can be used both hypocalcaemia and in osteoporosis.Plants on mineral intake Revealed: horsetail, nettle, sea buckthorn, rosehip, knotweed, folders medicinal bean or couch grass.Tea is consumed in the form of maceration or infusion.Can be consumed natural calcium tablets, but age-appropriate amounts.
Calcium is strongly recommended in the following situations:
The above examples show just some of the many uses of chemical compounds of calcium.