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NANOTECHNOLOGY

NANOTECHNOLOGY



Nanotechnology is ranked as the greatest discovery of the XXI century. It is a multidisciplinary field that combines great achievements in Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Strength of materials at the level of atoms and molecules at the nanoscale materials endowed with artificial intelligence.

Nanotechnology is a modalitatae materials are modified by atomic or molecular level, giving them unique properties and 
making them o behave in a different way from conventional material. Creations the nanotechnology

Material that cleans itself

Two Chinese researchers, Ming Long and Deyong Wu, claimed to have developed cotton clothes that have the ability to clean themselves of stains and bacteria when exposed to sunlight.
The invention was created by coating cotton with a layer consisting of a compound of titanium dioxide, a white material used in a wide range of products, from paint to sunscreen lotions.
This material has the ability to remove dirt and germs when exposed to different types of light. It is already used for self-cleaning windows, tiles for the bathroom and kitchen, but the socks which emit odors.

Nano - gold wires

      A team of American researchers have successfully use gold nano-wires to increase the electrical conductivity of a tissue created in the lab. Scientists believe that they could provide people with heart problems May 1 buan chance of survival.The threads used by researchers have a thickness of 30 nanometers and a length of 2-3 microns.
Researchers say this technology can be applied on any tissue can be stimulated electrically, including in the case of neural tissue
Microparticles that we can live without breathing
A team of researchers from the Boston Cildren's Hospital has created microparticles filled with oxygen can be injected directly into the patient's bloodstream to quickly oxygenate their blood.
Microparticles consist of a single layer of lipids inside is filled with oxygen. The microparticles are then injected by means of a liquid solution.
The researchers used high-intensity sonics to mix lipids with oxygen, thus obtaining particles with a diameter of 2-4 micrometers, in which oxygen is trapped inside the lipid coating.
Solution containing particles in which oxygen is 70% of the volume can easily mix with human blood. Microparticles thus obtained can carry 3-4 times more blood than red blood cells.


The most accurate scale in the world

      A team of researchers from the Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology in Barcelona has developed the most accurate scale in the world, able to distinguish the smallest unit of measurement of mass Yoctogramul. A yoctogram is a billionth of a billionth of a gram million. To measure such precision team of scientists have turned to the nanotubes, vibrating at different frequencies depending on the mass of the particles or molecules that are on them.
1,000 maps drawn on a grain of salt

     A team of scientists working in the I.B.M. drew the lowest 3D world that will be approved as such in the Guinness Book of Records. 1000 this took place on a map of salt granules. Map drawn on a tiny fragment of the polymer, measures 22 x 11 micrometers and consists of 500,000 pixels, each measuring 20 square nanometers.
     Even more remarkable is that it was created very quickly in just 2 minutes and 23 seconds. Although, at first glance, the map does not seem to have any practical use, their implementation representation is a very big step in terms of technology.

Nanovaccin against diabetes

    A group of Canadian researchers has developed a nanovaccin able to stop the progression of type 1 diabetes, restoring normal blood sugar levels.Nanovaccinul s - proved able to induce remission of type 1 diabetes in the experiments conducted by scientists in mice. Type 1 diabetes is a chronic pathology, caused by the destruction of pancreatic cells that produce insulin, operated by specific cells of the immune system T cells

Extremely small needle syringe

    A very small needle syringe was invented by researchers at the University of Illinois. Is able to penetrate the cell membrane to inject some substance molecules in the cytoplasm. It's applications are not limited to nano-needle 
so can be used as electrochemical probe to investigate the properties of intracellular environment, or optical biosensor. Nano-needle  is made - a tube made of a special chemical, boron nitride.

Nanotube is attached to the end of a glass pipette and covered with a thin layer of aur. Load to be inserted into the cell is attached to the gold layer using special molecules, the role of communication (linker molecules). Once inserted nano-needle  in the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell, releasing loads unravel these links.

 N
ano-needle which has a diameter of only 50 nanometers (1 nanometer = 1 millionth of - a meter) causes minimum disruption to the membrane, where it enters the cell and for the first time, the introduction of foreign substances into the cell can be precisely controlled and recorded . With this technology, the inventors say, will be studied with great precision many biophysical and biochemical processes at the cellular level.

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AZOTUL CA ELEMENT CHIMIC SI DESCOPERIREA SA

AZOTUL



Simbol chimic : N
Masa atomica : 14
Numar de masa “Z”: 7
Azotul se gaseste in grupa a V-a principala ai in prima perioada in sistemul periodic.
PROPRIETATI FIZICE:
Azotul este un caz incolor, inodor, insipid si non-toxic. El poate fi condensat intr-un lichid incolor si apoi compresat intr-un solid incolor si cristalin.
Nitrogenul are denistatea cu putin mai mica decat a aerului si este mai putin solubil in apa decat oxigenul. El nu intretine viata fiintelor care il respira.
Temperatura de topire a azotului este de – 210, 01 °C , in timp ce cea de fierbere este de – 195, 79 °C.
STARE NATURALA: Azotul este unul dintre gazele extrem de raspandite in natura. El se gaseste atat in stare libera cat si sub forma de compusi:
In stare libera, azotul reprezinta 78% din volumul aerului atmosferic.
Compusii azotului sunt:
-anorganici ( amoniac, azotati, etc. )
-organici (uree, proteine )
Azotul de gaseste intr-o proportie de la 1 la 10 % in fiecare din organismele vii.
PROPRIETATI CHIMICE :Azotul nu arde …

DROGURILE

Abuzul de droguri II

· Astazi în toata lumea sunt în jurul 190 milioane utilizatori de drogurilor.
· Utilizarea drogurilor sporeste în rândul tinerilor din lume. Majoritatea utilizatorilor au vârsta sub 30 de ani.
· În 1999, numarul tarilor care raporteaza utilizarea drogurilor prin injectare a fost de 136, numarul fiind de 80 în 1992. Dintre acestea, 93 de tari de asemenea identifica HIV printre injectatorii de droguri.
· Cannabis este cel mai utilizat drog în toate partile lumii.
· Costul economic total al abuzului de droguri în Statele Unite se estimeaza aproximativ la 70 miliarde dolari anual.
· Abuzul de cocaina printre somerii din Columbia este de 10 ori mai mare decât printre persoanele angajate.
· Industria drogurilor clandestina se estimeaza la 400 miliarde dolari pe an.

Abuzul de DROGURI
Abuzul de droguri inseamna orice utilizare excesiva, continua ori sporadica, incompatibila sau în relatie cu practica medicala, a unui drog. Consumul poate fi exceptional, în scopul de a înce…

CALCIU - ROLUL SAU IN CORPUL UMAN, UTILIZARI

     Calciul (Ca)

Calciul este cunoscut din anul 1808 când Sir Humpherey Davy împreunã cu renumitul chimist suedez J. J. Berzelius îl obtin prin electroliza clorurii de calciu folosind un catod de mercur. Separarea calciului metalic din amalganul de calciu rezultat din electrolizã a fost realizatã printr-o distilare în vid. Este un metal foarte rãspândit în scoarta terestrã (3. 6% digreutate), dar numai sub formã de combinatii chimice; carbonatul de calciu CaCO3 este cea mai uzualã combinatie chimicã naturalã a calciului fiind compo-nentul principal al rocilor sedimenatre. Acesta prezintã douã forme alotro-pice:calcitul, aragonitul. Cel mai des întâlnit este calcitul. Mai pot fi men-tionate si alte combinatii chimice ale calciului prezente în naturã, ca: sulfa-tul de calciu (gipsul) CaSO4 → 2H2O ,fluorura de calciu sau fluorina CaF2 , dolomita (CaCO3 MgCO3), apatita Ca5(PO4)3F, aragonita,creta. De remarcat este si prezenta calciului în corpul omului (1. 4% din greutate) precum si în or…