duminică, 12 mai 2013

NANOTECHNOLOGY

NANOTECHNOLOGY



Nanotechnology is ranked as the greatest discovery of the XXI century. It is a multidisciplinary field that combines great achievements in Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Strength of materials at the level of atoms and molecules at the nanoscale materials endowed with artificial intelligence.

Nanotechnology is a modalitatae materials are modified by atomic or molecular level, giving them unique properties and 
making them o behave in a different way from conventional material. Creations the nanotechnology

Material that cleans itself

Two Chinese researchers, Ming Long and Deyong Wu, claimed to have developed cotton clothes that have the ability to clean themselves of stains and bacteria when exposed to sunlight.
The invention was created by coating cotton with a layer consisting of a compound of titanium dioxide, a white material used in a wide range of products, from paint to sunscreen lotions.
This material has the ability to remove dirt and germs when exposed to different types of light. It is already used for self-cleaning windows, tiles for the bathroom and kitchen, but the socks which emit odors.

Nano - gold wires

      A team of American researchers have successfully use gold nano-wires to increase the electrical conductivity of a tissue created in the lab. Scientists believe that they could provide people with heart problems May 1 buan chance of survival.The threads used by researchers have a thickness of 30 nanometers and a length of 2-3 microns.
Researchers say this technology can be applied on any tissue can be stimulated electrically, including in the case of neural tissue
Microparticles that we can live without breathing
A team of researchers from the Boston Cildren's Hospital has created microparticles filled with oxygen can be injected directly into the patient's bloodstream to quickly oxygenate their blood.
Microparticles consist of a single layer of lipids inside is filled with oxygen. The microparticles are then injected by means of a liquid solution.
The researchers used high-intensity sonics to mix lipids with oxygen, thus obtaining particles with a diameter of 2-4 micrometers, in which oxygen is trapped inside the lipid coating.
Solution containing particles in which oxygen is 70% of the volume can easily mix with human blood. Microparticles thus obtained can carry 3-4 times more blood than red blood cells.


The most accurate scale in the world

      A team of researchers from the Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology in Barcelona has developed the most accurate scale in the world, able to distinguish the smallest unit of measurement of mass Yoctogramul. A yoctogram is a billionth of a billionth of a gram million. To measure such precision team of scientists have turned to the nanotubes, vibrating at different frequencies depending on the mass of the particles or molecules that are on them.
1,000 maps drawn on a grain of salt

     A team of scientists working in the I.B.M. drew the lowest 3D world that will be approved as such in the Guinness Book of Records. 1000 this took place on a map of salt granules. Map drawn on a tiny fragment of the polymer, measures 22 x 11 micrometers and consists of 500,000 pixels, each measuring 20 square nanometers.
     Even more remarkable is that it was created very quickly in just 2 minutes and 23 seconds. Although, at first glance, the map does not seem to have any practical use, their implementation representation is a very big step in terms of technology.

Nanovaccin against diabetes

    A group of Canadian researchers has developed a nanovaccin able to stop the progression of type 1 diabetes, restoring normal blood sugar levels.Nanovaccinul s - proved able to induce remission of type 1 diabetes in the experiments conducted by scientists in mice. Type 1 diabetes is a chronic pathology, caused by the destruction of pancreatic cells that produce insulin, operated by specific cells of the immune system T cells

Extremely small needle syringe

    A very small needle syringe was invented by researchers at the University of Illinois. Is able to penetrate the cell membrane to inject some substance molecules in the cytoplasm. It's applications are not limited to nano-needle 
so can be used as electrochemical probe to investigate the properties of intracellular environment, or optical biosensor. Nano-needle  is made - a tube made of a special chemical, boron nitride.

Nanotube is attached to the end of a glass pipette and covered with a thin layer of aur. Load to be inserted into the cell is attached to the gold layer using special molecules, the role of communication (linker molecules). Once inserted nano-needle  in the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell, releasing loads unravel these links.

 N
ano-needle which has a diameter of only 50 nanometers (1 nanometer = 1 millionth of - a meter) causes minimum disruption to the membrane, where it enters the cell and for the first time, the introduction of foreign substances into the cell can be precisely controlled and recorded . With this technology, the inventors say, will be studied with great precision many biophysical and biochemical processes at the cellular level.